Bessler 401


The Twin Drawings


There are two sets of text keys for the above drawing in Grund. (G1) is right before the drawing and (G2) is about one-third of the way through the book. There is a third text key in (DT).

Below are Renatto's translations and highlights for the most interesting numbered items.[Codes] that precede each text indicates which text key the description is taken from. (Comments by me follow.)

The drawing of the perpetual motion was made shortly before the Pentecost vacation of this year. It was brought to perfection afterwords by setting descriptions and noticed its condition after the numbers were added, at the same time this explanation of the copper models is enriched.

1. [G2] This is the artificial wheel or Perpetual Mobil itself, six Leipzigger ells high, one shoe thick, with a steamed cloth cover painted with green lacquer, so that nobody could see inside. (He calls it the artificial wheel to make a statement and I feel it is because he is not intending on talking about the outside.)

(Between 1 and 2 there is a long dissertation the first part of which kind of sounds like he is going to now state the “causative principle” of the movement to shut up those who accuse him.)

2. [G2] The thickness or profile of the machine where the artful craft is hidden. (The artful craft Bessler speaks of is of course the internal mechanism and/or weight being near the periphery of the wheel.)

3. [G2] The shaft or axle, on which the machine is firmly attached and rotates with the shaft, at the same time. (The internal mechanism is attached directly and firmly to the main shaft.)

4. [G2] The boards, in which the perpetual mobile hangs and moves. (It takes a very long time to do typeset printing like Bessler did and he picked and chose his words very carefully. He chose the particular phrasing 'in which it hangs and moves'. . The phrasing is just kind of odd or out of place unless it is intended to describe something other than a support column. He could have just said support columns. On another note in his books he uses the words rotate, rotated, and rotation FREQUENTLY not only in German but Latin, too. Now he suddenly uses the word 'move'..... Sounds like the mechanism does something other than rotate in respect to and in between the boards numbered four. More about this in the other two drawings.)

5. [DT] Frame position for the throb work and stamping. (The number five is uniquely difficult to find on the drawing. In the Grund it is blended in with a decorative design that looks like broken glass, In DT it is buried in the left shadow on the floor and barely visible on a really good copy. The frame could be number four but isn't it ironic that the “frame position” is hard to find?)

6. [G2] The four stampers themselves are lifted duplicatedly with each rotation of the artificial wheel because the shaft is made with eight arms. (The term duplicatedly can mean either “in pairs” or “twice” and here it would seem to mean both. The stampers seem to represent the pairs of weights from number eight below.)

7. [G2] There is significance to the arms on the shaft and the stampers. (What can I say?)

8. [G2] The two perpendicul so there is equilibrium, ensures the movement when hung on. They can be taken off, and the wheel rotates without hindrance, but the wheel will spin exceedingly fast when trying to hold back a hanging weight. (The Latin word perpendicul means- the perpendicular. If number eight is part of the internal mechanism then equilibrium would be helpful for the wheel to remain stationary when stopped. In the second phrase Bessler is telling us that when number eight is hung on the wheel it ensures the movement yet they were never reported by observers from the outside. They can be taken off but.... Number eight also acts like a dynamic brake as demonstrated by the B-man's big wheel. A final note is the hoop at the top of the pendulum just left of the center of the drawing. The only reasonable theory to date is that it represents a pivot point compensation for the direction change. )

9. [G2] Are the boards, which are only thought to connect the perpendicul to the crank on the shaft. (Now you know that number nine is not connected to the crank at the end of the axle shaft.)

10. [G2] Are the cranks and screws themselves that are screwed into the shaft. (Got nothing here since its not connected to anything)

11. [G2] Shows both corners of the perpendicul where the weights are attached. (The term corner is usually reserved for rectangles and triangles. Best guess is that the cross bar at the top represents two number eight's in more or less equilibrium. I say more or less because if you measure the weights distance from center they are not quite equal. The long weighted arm going downward is probably the actual individual piece. From practical experience, you will only be effectively shortening the longest arm by adding the top T weights.)

12. [G2] Are two boards. A wooden railing that is taken around the machine along with the door and one hanging perpendicul. (Now we have a railing, a door, and number eight all traveling in a group between a pair of number four's around the periphery of the wheel. Am I getting this right?)

13. (G2) It is one cross board on which is one end of this perpendicul. (Everyone who looks at these drawings thinks that the pendulum is attached to the number four behind it but its not. The pendulum is attached to thirteen. As you look slightly left of the center of the twin drawings numbers twelve and thirteen are impractically distant from their attachment with number eight that in turn isn't attached to the crank... ...? The topper is that the stick between thirteen and four does not appear to exist. No number, no description and an impossible connection)

14. [G2] An iron screw attaches one end of the rope to the shaft. (There is a reasonable possibility that the mechanism has a rope that is set with just the right tension or length with a single screw on the shaft.)

15. [G2] Know how the rope goes around the axle, as it winds the weight is pulled up. (I wish I knew how and why the rope goes around the axle.)

16. [DT;L.] Shows the total length of the rope. (Sounds really important but I have not figured out how to effectively use this information. Always wondered if the angles of the ropes on the drawing were somehow significant.)

17. [G2] One wheel on the floor under which the rope goes. (It is possible Bessler had ropes and pulleys on his wheel but I'm kind of doubting it because of practical experience with model wheels I have built. The pulley rope relationship more likely represents pushing/pulling forces or something entirely different.)

18. [G2] One hole in the post through which the rope goes. (This rectangular hole has always bugged me. It is an unbelievable pain to get a nice ninety degree inside corner in wood. A round hole would be so much easier.. Its location on number four and/or its off center nature may be the important point.)

19. [G2] The window in the room through which this rope goes out. (If there is any clue here it is that the rope is only pulled during one quarter of the rotation.)

20. [G2] The other wheel, over which the rope goes. ( The pulley has an apparent mistake however it is identical in both of the twin drawings. Where the rope goes on and off the lower pulley number seventeen falls in correct alignment. The top pulley, however, the rope goes on to the pulley correctly from the left but is going straight down from the upper pulley to the weight. It looks as if the rope passes through part of the pulley to narrowly miss its own axle point. A flat sided pulley is an interesting mechanical phenomena but like before, rope is very difficult to work with.)

21. [G2] Shows one piece of construction wood in the courtyard on which this wheel is attached. (Not much here.)

22. [G2] Observe the weight at 70 pounds or the box with 6 bricks, so through one of the perpendicular lines, at least eight ells apart, above the two wheels moved sharply up to the roof of the house. A burdensome strain below in the outside courtyard lifted several fathoms high because the situation of the scene would not permit more. With a similar speed of rotation of the artificial wheel as if it were not lifting or moving or pulling up anything. (Really wish I could say something about “one of the perpendicular lines at least eight ells apart [16 inches?] The weight being “snapped up sharply” even when the artificial wheel is pulling a load sounds like something the internal weights would do.)

23.[G2] Is an arm with which the machine is secured when it is not running. (OK, we have numbers eight, eleven, twelve, thirteen and maybe nine flying around the edge of the wheel in between boards number four and now it is stopped and/or held by twenty-three ..... clear as dirty water.)

24.[G2] The lock and latch on which the machine is connected. (Earlier we saw that the mechanism is near the periphery but firmly attached to the main wooden shaft. The internal machine appears to connect to the rim at least during this part of the rotation.)

Unexplained oddities and drawing differences in the twin drawings:

As you look at the twin drawings the periphery of each have little football shapes that seem compressed in certain areas. Is it a speed indicator of the four, eight, nine, eleven, twelve and thirteen group?

The non-existent stick that extends from four to thirteen goes through the hoop at the top of pendulum eight in Grund but bypasses the hoop in DT.

Far left of page DT shows a pin pivot system anchored to the wall with a screw but in Grund the board disappears into the outside wall.

The top and bottom arms of number twenty-three on the shaft are different and almost inverted.

On the DT twin drawing the text at bottom is missing and the measuring stick is really vague and it blends into board number twelve at a right angle. Looks like he was trying to hide the scale a little bit more in his later battles with the world. The ruler has four feet with their first six inches marked. The first two have faint or no markings at the end of the bottom row. Of the right two sets the first has a missing section at the end of the top row and the last onne has a missing top row marking in the middle. Is that one balanced? The combination of curiosities of the markings means something to Bessler or he would not have layed it out this way.

In the DT twin drawing the center bottom ruler is split into two rows and in the center section there are four equally spaced marks from left to right. The strangeness is that the first mark is in the bottom row and the following three are in the upper row.

Grund is shadowed where parts meet the floor as if all light is coming from the right. DT there is light from both sides.

On the DT drawing one of the number twenty-fours is inverted to a forty-two that does not occur in Grund. I have pondered and researched this extensively knowing the low likelihood that Bessler would publish his a book that was intended to reach the whole world with so glaring of a mistake. There are parallel lines that fill the body of the wheel on the right and the lock numbered forty-two just happens to be perpendicularly dead center at the bottom of those lines.

The Sardine Can: Lots of stuff crammed into a small space

The twin drawings are the two way wheel. The weights are connected as pairs at opposite sides of the wheel that more or less equally spaced around the diameter of the wheel. Most likely four pairs making a total of eight weights. The pair of weights are lifted at the same time at or near the top and bottom of the wheel. The weights are lifted and/or assisted by the weighted arm or arms that are perpendicular to it. Even though four is firmly attached to the shaft there is some indication it may swing at the axle mount. On this wheel the weights swing in an usual manner because its axle is tangential to the wheel axle. (The crab crawls sideways, it is sound for it is designed as such.)

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